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Sighisoara Fortress

Sighisoara, judetul Mures

Sighisoara is a medieval fortress with architectural ensembles made in rural Gothic style, but also in Renaissance and Baroque styles, which are the result of a constructive effort appeared later in t [read more]

Cetate, Categoria: Istoric
8 x Images
2 x videos
UNESCO

Barsana Monastery

judetul Maramures, Maramures

The Monastery “Synaxis of the 12 Holy Apostles" from Barsana is a convent, located at 22 km southeast of the Sighetu Marmatiei city, at the exit of Barsana, to the Slatioara bridge, where t [read more]

Manastire, Categoria: Religios | Biserica, Categoria: Religios
21 x Images
6 x videos
UNESCO

Voronet Monastery

Gura Humorului, judetul Suceava

Founded by Stefan cel Mare, Voronet Monastery church dedicated to "St. Gheorghe" is a synthesis of Byzantine and Gothic elements, made in an original manner. With a brilliant ingenuity, with [read more]

Manastire, Categoria: Religios
18 x Images
1 x videos
UNESCO

The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (DDBRA)

Delta Dunarii, judetul Tulcea

With Romania's adhesion to the Ramsar Convention in 1991, Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (DDBRA) was recognized as a wetland of international importance especially as waterfowl habitat. Taking into ac [read more]

Parc, Categoria: Natura
12 x Images
0 x videos
UNESCO

Humor Monastery

Gura Humorului, judetul Suceava

Situated at a distance of 5 to 6 km of Gura Humorului, Humor Monastery is one of the most famous foundations of the Romanian Middle Ages. It was built in 1530 by Toader Bubuiog, member of the divan of [read more]

Manastire, Categoria: Religios
7 x Images
2 x videos
UNESCO

Hurezi (Horezu) Monastery

Horezu, judetul Valcea

Among the historical monasteries, which decorates the Romanian ground, Hurezi Monastery is considered, along with its hermitages, the most representative architecture complex, defining the Brancoveanu [read more]

Manastire, Categoria: Religios
9 x Images
1 x videos
UNESCO

Deva Fortress

Deva, judetul Hunedoara

AddressAleea Cetatii

Description

Deva Fortress or Castrum Deva is located on the andesite hummock of Fortress Hill (Dealul Cetatii in Rom.), in the north-west part of town, and is situated at an altitude of 371 m. Deva Fortress was built on the site of an ancient Dacian Roman fortifications.
The first building works send for early XI century, after the defeat by the Hungarians of Duke Ahtum in the City of Morisena (Cenad), when arrived here the first people settled from west.

Other works have been realized in time of the Hungarian King, Geza II (1141-1161), when arrived here the first colonial Germans in Transylvania. But most likely is that Deva Fortress was built around 1250 during King Bela IV, after the Tartar invasion of 1241, which devastated Mures Valley. Built in the thirteenth century with a strategic purpose, at the narrowing of Mures valley and at the penetration of the river in the gorge between Poiana Rusca and Apuseni Mountains, Deva Fortress was one of the most important buildings of Transylvania.

Over time, the city was considered a defense against Tartar invasions and other potential enemies, who wanted to conquer the region, it was a refuge for nobility in front of peasant uprisings, noble residence, prison and garrison, protected travelers and merchants that circulated along Mures valley. Deva Fortress was for the first time mentioned in documents in 1269, when in a written document by Stefan Duke of Transylvania, it was mentioned "Castrum Deva".

Deva Fortress was used as princely residence since 1307 and in the fourteenth and fifteenth century as Wallachian military district with the jurisdiction in four Romanian counties. Since 1453, Iancu of Hunedoara has made it a noble castle, becoming one of the strongest fortresses in Transylvania.

The fortress was used as a prison during the sixteenth century, here being imprisoned the humanist David Ferencz, founder of the Unitarian church and Moise Secuiul, leader of the Transylvanian nobility. In the cell where was imprisoned David Ferencz there was set in 1948 a commemorative plaque. Deva Fortress highlighted in the suppression of peasant uprisings in 1437, 1514 and 1527.
In the seventeenth century the castle came into possession of the nobility Gabriel Bethlen and Stefan Bethlen, Gheorghe I Rakoczy and Acatiu Barcsay, the period in which there were made restoration works and was built the circular bastion in the south.

Since 1686 the city came under Austrian domination, which will remain until the nineteenth century. In 1713, the governor of Transylvania, Ioan Steinwille, who lived in Deva, collected from the population a tax of 50,000 florins used for building a new fortification and strengthens the city, with two bastions in the east and pillboxes in the west.

With the uprising of 1782 the city came under the occupation of peasants from Dobra, and in 1786 was besieged by insurgent peasants led by Horea, Closca and Crisan. In the late eighteenth century the city was deserted, but regained importance after 1817, when passing through the Deva, king Fracisc I decided to restore it.

The restoration works were held over a year, spending more than 216,000 florins. During the revolution of 1848-1849, the Austrian garrison located in the city led by Lieutenant Wurn, hearing the news of successful victories of the revolutionaries over the imperial armies, mined the fortress walls. Revolutionaries besieged the fortress in the spring of 1849, forcing the Austrian garrison to leave it. Along with the latest revolutionary events in August, which led to the defeat of the revolution, the explosion of ammunition warehouse devastated the walls of Deva Fortress.

Nowadays are still preserved the belts of walls reinforced with square or circular towers and monumental gates. From the main gate, the lower inside wall develops and climbs the hill and surrounds the fortress. The road near the wall leads to the second gate in the form of a long vaulted corridor. On the right of the gate are preserved the trails of the guard cells. Passing the second gateway to the buildings ensemble on the hill, the path leads to the second precinct gate of the city.

The enclosure wall presents battlements, being arranged to fire heavy weapons. After a semicircular bastion you pass to the gate of the last room that keeps massive buttresses. In this enclosure is the inner courtyard of the fortress, which is bordered by high walls which represent the ruins of rooms, warehouses, household outbuildings.

The city center contains the ruins of the nobiliary palace with traces of Gothic vaulting and Renaissance elements. To the west of the gate there is located a defense tower and in the east is situated the guard room. Deva Fortress, with its present shape, is still impressive, being a tourist attraction for visitors both due to its ruins and its position that dominates the city.

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