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Sighisoara Fortress

Sighisoara, judetul Mures

Sighisoara is a medieval fortress with architectural ensembles made in rural Gothic style, but also in Renaissance and Baroque styles, which are the result of a constructive effort appeared later in t [read more]

Cetate, Categoria: Istoric
8 x Images
2 x videos

Barsana Monastery

judetul Maramures, Maramures

The Monastery “Synaxis of the 12 Holy Apostles" from Barsana is a convent, located at 22 km southeast of the Sighetu Marmatiei city, at the exit of Barsana, to the Slatioara bridge, where t [read more]

Manastire, Categoria: Religios | Biserica, Categoria: Religios
21 x Images
6 x videos

Voronet Monastery

Gura Humorului, judetul Suceava

Founded by Stefan cel Mare, Voronet Monastery church dedicated to "St. Gheorghe" is a synthesis of Byzantine and Gothic elements, made in an original manner. With a brilliant ingenuity, with [read more]

Manastire, Categoria: Religios
18 x Images
1 x videos

The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (DDBRA)

Delta Dunarii, judetul Tulcea

With Romania's adhesion to the Ramsar Convention in 1991, Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve (DDBRA) was recognized as a wetland of international importance especially as waterfowl habitat. Taking into ac [read more]

Parc, Categoria: Natura
12 x Images
0 x videos

Humor Monastery

Gura Humorului, judetul Suceava

Situated at a distance of 5 to 6 km of Gura Humorului, Humor Monastery is one of the most famous foundations of the Romanian Middle Ages. It was built in 1530 by Toader Bubuiog, member of the divan of [read more]

Manastire, Categoria: Religios
7 x Images
2 x videos

Hurezi (Horezu) Monastery

Horezu, judetul Valcea

Among the historical monasteries, which decorates the Romanian ground, Hurezi Monastery is considered, along with its hermitages, the most representative architecture complex, defining the Brancoveanu [read more]

Manastire, Categoria: Religios
9 x Images
1 x videos

The Wooden Church of Ieud Deal

judetul Maramures, Maramures (UNESCO)

AddressLoc. Ieud,


Built by the local noble family in the early seventeenth century in Ieud, the old church situated on the hill is a century older than the wooden plain church. The Wooden Church from Ieud Deal represents a leading art and technique of building wooden churches in Maramures.

The value of the church is offered by a painting set of overall quality. The representative art belongs to the famous painter Alexander Ponehalschi. Along with other seven wooden churches from Maramures, the Wooden Church from Ieud Deal was included in the 1999 in the UNESCO on the list of valuable monuments of cultural heritage.

The church have been dated, for the first time, since 1364, in the “Gherla Diocese sematism” from 1900, which, most likely is used as source the dates collected and sent by Tit Bud, the vicar of Maramures. He latter reiterated the dating to 1911, referring to a note left on the “bridge beams of the church”. This dating is questioned by the medieval historian Radu Popa, who suggested the dating after the invasion of the Tartar from 1717. This tendency, to date most of the wooden churches of Maramures after the Tartar invasion of 1717, is reflected in the schedule of the monument, made for registration in the UNESCO world heritage.

Another theory is supported by the art historian Marius Porumb, more equidistant towards both positions, which understated that the Wooden Church of Ieud Deal "is probably from the XVII century, rebuilt in the eighteenth century”. The problem is solved in 1997, with the dendrochronology dating method by Iceland researcher Olafur Eggertsson, who dated the wooden church from Ieud Deal since the second decade of the eighteenth century.

The entire interior surface of the church (in the chancel, nave, narthex) is covered with the ensemble mural painting, noted by the art historian Anca Pop-Bratu. This is attributed to the itinerant painter Alexander Ponehalschi, whose characteristic style can be distinguished from other wall assemblies signed in Calinesti Caeni (1754), Serbi Susani (1760), Budesti Susani (1760), Berbesti (1769), Desesti (1780).

Anca Pop-Bratu placed the mural from Ieud Deal during the final artistic creation part, imagining a progressive evolution headed toward the climax of his creation. But the documents from the archive bring more enlightenment around the wall paintings dating from Ieud Deal. In the parish census from 1774 appears information that both churches from Ieud were renovated in the years 1764-1765 by the noble Mihai Balea.

The dendrochronology research method discovered in Ieud Deal, soles changes at that time. He noted that the windows were enlarged. Two original windows were preserved between the eaves to the west. At that time they started, probably from an iconostasis with two doors to one of three doors, according to local custom, religious art introduced in the mid of the eighteenth century.

An innovation was the repainting of the religious edifice in 1765. In that period many churches have been renovated. In this sense the wooden church from Ieud Hill was not an exception, especially as it was situated in a village of ambitious nobles. In conclusion, the painting was completed in 1764-65, most likely in 1765.

Framed in the painting of the nave there are texts in Romanian with Cyrillic characters, situated under the lower windows, especially that of the northern “crasnic” and the southern “diac”, that contains theological preaches to the believers. On the base of the painted themes round, and in the nave, the text of the windows appear as a manifestation of keeping the orthodox tradition in Maramures.

Their text must be more carefully documented, where it is more legible, and considered:
• Under the window of the “crasnic”, the north wall on the nave it appears writter: “Inpotriva sf[intei] ... sau zugravit pravoslavnica besereca acestie sa [nu fie] cum cinstitilor, si intru H[risto]S [sf/fra/iub]iti, preoti si dascali si mireani aceasta d[u]mnazaesca ... sa nu cumva hulum inpotriva cine sti mai bene sa indireptaze pre noi mult e[s]t[e] jitie a sfintilor pe[rinti]."
• Under the window of the “diac?, the south wall of the nave: “... care era intru inceputu, care amu auzitu, care vazutu cu ochii nostri la ceea ce si mainile noastre au pipaitu ... aratat s'am vazutu si marturisit cu samnulu a tuturora sf[i]ntilor."

The Wooden Church from Ieud Deal has the following proportions: 7.15 m width and 11, 87 m long, with a maximum capacity of about 340 faithful people. The space is equally divided between women and men. The church is ordered from west to east with an entrance hall for women (narthex), church men (ship) and the altar. The entrance is from the west through a portal without decoration, repeatedly and at the entrance of the nave. The narthex or the porch of the women is ceiled to church tower and opened to the men’s church through the holes in the wall either sides of the door.

The Men’s Church or nave is the main room, emphasized by the high arch of the church. It is noted that the vessel height is equal to its width, and a noticeable proportion to other churches from the beginning of the seventeenth century in Maramures. Near the sanctuary there are three doors and in front of the iconostas there is a “solee” that marks the transition from profane to sacred. The altar is separated and finished with five short outer sides. It is 4.15 m wide and 3.6 m deep. The interior is illuminated by small windows in the sharp angle, which initially were smaller.

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