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Transport

Romania, by geographical location, represents the intersection of several main transportation, linking northern and southern Europe, as well as Western and Eastern Europe. On the other hand, Romania's transport network connects the EU Community transport network and the transport network of the states that are not part of the EU neighboring from Eastern Europe and Asia. Transport network in Romania is quite varied, urban transport is within villages but also on long distance.

Roads

Romania has a road network totaling about 198,817 kilometers, of which 60,043 are a small part of upgraded roads. Intercity transport in Romania is taking place mainly by road with buses and minibuses, most private property. Number of kilometers of highway in Romania in March 2009 was 280.
European roads passing through Romania are: E58, E60, E68, E70, E79, E81, E85, E87 (Class A), E574, E576, E577, E578, E581, E583, E584, E671, E673, E675, E771 (Class B).

Regulation of traffic on roads in Romania
Speed and distance between vehicles
Art.48 - The driver of the vehicle must comply with the statutory speed and adapt it according to road conditions, so that it can perform any maneuver safely.

Article 49 - (1) maximum speed limit in towns and villages is 50 km / h.
(2) In certain sectors of road inside the towns or villages, the road manager may, for vehicles in category A and B, establish higher speed limits but not more than 80 km / h. Speed limits above 50 km / h is determined only by the road police opinion.
(3) In certain sectors of road, taking into account the circumstances and traffic intensity, the road manager on the advice of road police, may also fix lower speed limits, but not less than 10 km / h for the tram and 30 km / h for all vehicles.
(4) Maximum speed, outside localities, are:
a) on highways - 130 km / h;
b) on the express or national and European roads (E) - 100km / h;
c) on other categories of roads - 90 km / h.

Art.50 - (1) the maximum speeds permitted outside towns or villages for categories and subcategories for cars provided under Article 15. (2) are:
a) 130 km / h on highways, 100 km / h on express roads or those national European (E) and 90 km / h on other categories of roads for vehicles in categories A, B and BE;
b) 110 km / h on highways, 90 km / h on express roads or those national European (E) and 80 km / h on other categories of roads for vehicles in categories C, CE, D and D1 and subcategories and D1E;
c) 90 km / h on highways, 80 km / h on express roads or those national European (E) and 70 km / h for the other categories of roads for vehicles in sub-categories A1, B1, C1 and C1E;d) 45 km / h for tractors and mopeds.
(2) The maximum speed for vehicles outside localities which tows a trailer or semi trailer is 10 km / h less than the maximum speed allowed for the category of the car that tows. (3) The maximum speed for vehicles with weight and / or dimension exceeded or carrying dangerous goods is 40 km / h in localities and outside villages of 70 km / h.
(4) The maximum speed for vehicles outside the villages whose drivers have less than a year of driving practice or persons doing practical training in order to obtain a driving license is 20 km / h less than the maximum speed allowed for the category which include the cars driven.
Art.51. - The driver of a vehicle in behind another has an obligation to keep a safe distance from it, to avoid collision.

Railways

National railway operator is the Romanian Railways (CFR), which operates on the network along with other private transportation companies and is the fourth largest in Europe.
Length of railways: 22,247 kilometers (8585 km electrified)
International Gauge (UIC): 21,811 kilometers
Narrow gauge: 487 km (1996)

Rail freight and passenger has registered a dramatic decline from record levels in 1989, mainly due to decrease in GDP in the �90, increasing unemployment and competition with road transport. In 2007 were put in circulation 1600 trains, most of which consisted of local trains (personal).
The railway network consists of 9 main railways from which ramify several secondary highways.

CFR Passengers, passenger section of the railway, operates seven types of trains on both the country and in international traffic. CFR Passengers types of trains are:
  • Personal (P), numbered from 2000 to 9999
  • Speed (A), numbered from 1000 to 1999
  • Rapid (R), numbered from 200 to 499, from 600 to 999 and from 10,000 to 14,999
  • Rapid International (RI), numbered from 300 to 499
  • Inter City (IC), numbered 500 to 599
  • Euro Night (EN) (has the same rates as a R - currently runs only one pair of fast train, namely R 370/371 (Ister-Bucharest North-Budapest)
  • Euro City (EC), EC 46/47 Trajan (circulated between Budapest-Bucharest North, now functions as IC train between Budapest-Timisoara)
  • Special (S), numbered from S1 to S9

The speed limit for all trains in Romania is 160 km / h, although the only route that trains can move with such speed is Bucharest - Constanta. Also on the route Bucharest - Campina trains can run with a speed of 140 km / h. The average speed of trains (including stops in stations), according to reports from the CFR in 2004, is: 34.3 km / h for slow trains, 67 km / h for fast trains, 85 km / h for rapid trains and 87 km / h for Inter-City trains.

Currently, the longest route (as time) from Romania is Oradea - Mangalia (913 km), route which is made in the summer season in 19 hours with a fast train. The longest route for an Inter-City train is Oradea - Bucharest, journey which takes 11 hours.

Links with other countries
Romania has rail connections with all neighboring countries. If for Hungary, Serbia and Bulgaria the border crossing does not interfere any problem, for Ukraine and Moldavia is a change of gauge from 1435 mm to 1524 mm.
Capital city is connected by 8 pairs of trains with destination Budapest, Vienna, Prague, Venice, Belgrade, Moscow, Kishinev, Sofia, Istanbul and Thessaloniki. Of the main cities of Transylvania go train to Budapest and Debrecen (Hungary).

Air transport

Air travel in Romania take place between the big cities, passenger traffic being comparable to other European countries, namely 2,110,000 passengers in 2006 on domestic traffic. Currently are open to passengers a total of 16 airports including two in the capital: Henri Coanda and Aurel Vlaicu.
On September 18, 1954 was established TAROM (Romanian Air Transport).
On the domestic market are present low cost companies: Blue Air (Romania), Wizz Air (Hungary), SkyEurope (Slovakia), MyAir (Italy), Germanwings (low-cost Division of Lufthansa) and Easyjet (United Kingdom).

In Romania there are 62 airports.
  • Airports with paved runways: 25
  • Airports with unpaved runways: 37
  • Heliport: 1

Navigable waters

Romanian river transport is still at a low level (below one percent) but with high growth potential due to navigable rivers and the Danube waterway. In 2006, in Romania there were 1731 kilometers of navigable waters from which:
  • 1075 kilometers on the Danube;
  • 524 km on the river side;
  • 132 km on channels.
Romania has a number of 2251 Class I river vessels, which can perform economical missions on the international river waters and about 587 which may navigate only on the Romanian side of Danube and the inland rivers. Most of the registered vessels are the recreational ones, about 13,246, leisure tourism on the Danube and the sea waters of Romania developing in recent years. Important for Romania is the Danube-Black Sea canal which connects port of Cernavoda with the sea port of Constanta, shortening the route for goods by about 400 from Black Sea to the Danube ports in Central Europe.

Ports
  • Ports on the Black Sea: Constanta (the biggest port and shipyard on the Black Sea), Mangalia, Sulina, Navodari.
  • Ports on the Danube: Galati, Braila, Tulcea, Giurgiu, Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Oltenita.
  • Ports on the Danube-Black Sea Canal: Cernavoda, Alba Gate, Constanta South, Agigea Medgidia.
  • Bega Canal ports: Timisoara
The main means of transportation are buses, trolleybuses, trams and minibuses, generally operated by autonomous administration managed by local authorities (e.g. Bucharest Transport Autonomous Administration). The only city that has a subway is Bucharest. Bucharest Metro was opened in 1979 - today the most used means of transport in Bucharest, with an average of 600,000 passengers daily (on weekdays), an underground network length of 63 km and 45 stations.

Transit in Romania

U.S. citizens and citizens of most European countries do not require an entry visa to Romania for business or tourist trips. Visa is necessary only if you stay in Romania more than 90 days.

Countries whose citizens do not require visas for entry or transit in Romania are: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, Guatemala, Holy See, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, El Salvador, San Marino, Seychelle, Singapore, South Korea, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, the European Union Member ).

Entry in Romania requires a valid passport and European Union citizens can use the ID.
There are no charges for entering or leaving the country
If you are the citizen of a country that does not require visa for entry in Romania and you want to stay more than 90 days, you must obtain a visa from the Romanian embassies in that country, diplomatic missions and consular offices.

The types of visas granted by Romania are:
  • The airport transit visa (symbol A) ;
  • Transit visa (symbol B);
  • Short-stay visa (symbol C);
  • Long-stay visa (symbol D).
Countries whose nationals need a visa for entry or transit in Romania are: Afghanistan, South Africa, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Saudi Arabia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burma / Myanmar, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Ivory Coast, North Korea, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Philippines, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, Guyana, Haiti , India, Jordan, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotto, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Northern Marianas, Mauritania, Micronesia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Montenegro, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Qatar, Russia, Rwanda, Western Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal , Serbia, Sierra Leone, Solomon Islands, Syria, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad, Tobago, Tunisia , Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Visa for entry is granted by the Romanian embassies or consulates abroad. Visas can be issued for a single entry or multiple entries.
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